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    [Mariposa War] Bond of the State of California for War Indebtedness, $500, "for the payment of expenses of certain Expeditions against the Indians". Two pages, front and verso, 11.75" x 10.5", June 25, 1852, [Sacramento]. The bearer's bond, number "16", is signed on the front by Winslow S. Pierce as Comptroller and Richard Roman as Treasurer. Governor John Bigler signed the back. This attractive bond features vignettes of an American Indian, George Washington surrounded by elaborate scroll-work, and a paddlewheel boat under sail. The bond, produced by the Fishbourne's Lithography, Ohio Street, San Francisco, still retains eleven interest stubs at the bottom. The bond has the usual cut cancellations, all with archival tape repairs on the verso.

    The Mariposa War was a long conflict between Native Americans and miners in California. The war was sparked by the 1849 California Gold Rush. Thousands of hopeful gold seekers crossed this trail into northern California, which at this point in time consisted of mostly Native Americans, and Californios (the descendants of early Spanish settlers). By the end of May 1849, it is estimated that more than 40,000 Whites had entered Indian territory. Anglos soon took control of the gold fields and pushed Californios, as well as Chinese and African American gold seekers from the mines. The gold rush also increased pressure on the Native Americans of California, miners forced Native Americans off their gold-rich lands. Many were pressed into service in the mines; others had their villages raided by the army and volunteer militia. Some Native American tribes fought back, lead raids on settler populations' property in 1850 and 1851. In 1852 the State of California issued these bonds to finance the military expeditions to subdue the Indians.

    Condition: Slight water staining to the top, else near fine.

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    Auction Dates
    January, 2009
    23rd-25th Friday-Sunday
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