DescriptionMormonism: Highly Important Circa 1863-1864 Photo Album. 6.5" x 9" gilt and embossed leather photograph album housing cartes-de-visite, a large number of which deal with Mormon leaders and Salt Lake City. There are sixty-one examples that fall into this category. The balance of the images (thirty) are European in origin. Not included in that number are a CDV of Kit Carson and four cartes of Ute Indians, no doubt Utah natives. There are twenty-five leaves with four on a page, for a grand total of 100 CDVs. The album is completely untouched and sold as-found with no additions or deletions. We have not removed any of the cartes from their sleeves, for fear of damage, as they are firmly in place. We assume the images were taken at Sutterly Brothers Photographers, as this establishment is pictured on two of the cartes. Condition is outstanding with only a few edge tears in some of the mounts and some tape repairs where such damage occurred. We direct your attention to our on-line description which will include an additional fifteen images of the contents. One of the cartes shows the tabernacle under construction, dating this album to 1863-1864. The assembler of this album has added identifications to almost all the individuals pictured. We were drawn to one portrait in particular, that of Porter Rockwell, the so-called "Avenging Angel of Mormondom", considered the ringleader of a massacre of settlers passing through the territory.
Please refer to the extended description for some biographical details on the subjects depicted (Church leaders and elders). Here is a listing: Orson Pratt, Brigham Young, 1st Counsellor Heber C. Kimball, 2nd Counsellor Daniel Wells, Bishop Abraham Hoagland, Bishop Edward Hunter, Lorenzo D. Young, Porter Rockwell, George A. Smith, Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff, Phineas Young, Lorenzo Snow, Erastus Snow, Orson Hyde, John Taylor, Franklin D. Richards, Ezra T. Benson, A. M. Lyman, Charles C. Rick, George L. Cannon, H. B. Clawson (autographed).
The identified women in the album are: Mrs. Vilale Kimball (wife of Heber C. Kimball), Mrs. Ezra Snow, Miss Alexander and Mrs. Adams. Eliza R. Snow was married to both Joseph Smith and Brigham Young. She was the second General President of the Relief Society, following Emma Smith.
Ezra T. Benson was appointed a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1846. By coincidence, elsewhere in this auction, we are offering a pocket watch presented to Benson in 1856 while on a trip to England, on church-related business authorized by Brigham Young. This album and the watch are great Mormon artifacts that Heritage is proud to offer.
Orson Pratt (1811-1881)
Born in Hartford, New York, Pratt was introduced to and baptized in the church of the Latter Day Saints in 1830 by his older brother Parley P. Pratt. Ordained an Elder by Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saints movement, Pratt embarked on missionary work for the church. In 1835, he was ordained by Smith as a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Pratt later had a falling out with Smith over the issue of polygamy, which later resulted in his excommunication from the church in 1842. He and Smith subsequently reconciled and Pratt rejoined the church and reinstated in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. He also overcame what doubts he had concerning polygamy and had ten wives. After Smith's death, Pratt supported the ascension of Brigham Young as leader of the church and was among the pioneers who moved with Young and his followers in the late 1840s to Salt Lake in Utah Territory, where the LDS church became established. Pratt was an accomplished mathematician who developed a keen interested in astronomy, publishing two works on these subjects. When he died in Salt Lake from complications of diabetes, he was the last of the LDS church's original Quorum of Twelve members.
Brigham Young (1801-1877)
Born in Whitingham, Vermont, Brigham Young was the ninth of eleven children. When he was three years of age his family moved to New York; in 1815, when his mother died, Young left home and worked as a carpenter, joiner, glazer, painter, and landscape gardener. Baptized a member of the Church of Latter-day Saints in 1832, he was ordained as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835. Young was an ardent missionary for the church and moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he directed his missionary work, which included work in Great Britain in 1840-1841. When he returned from Great Britain, he was placed in charge of the church's business affairs. After the assassination of Joseph Smith in 1844, Young was chosen leader of the Mormons and continued as president until his death. He directed the migration of 16,000 Mormons from Illinois to Utah Territory from 1856 to 1852, and became governor of the territory in 1851. In addition to bolstering his community through education and the arts, Young contracted for the national expansion of telegraph and railroad lines. While serving as president Young was influential in pushing Utah to give women voting rights in 1870, and he constructed the Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City and began the erection of the Salt Lake Temple. He founded Brigham Young University and the University of Deseret, now University of Utah. Young had fifty-five wives with whom he had fifty-six children. He died in 1877 and his funeral drew an estimated crowd of between 12,000 to 15,000 people.
Heber C. Kimball (1801-1868)
Born in Sheldon, Vermont, Kimball left school at a young age and worked as a blacksmith and a potter, later moving to upstate New York. He was a Baptist and an active Mason when he was baptized in the Church of Latter Day Saints in 1832. Soon ordained an elder in the church, Kimball began missionary work in New York along with Joseph and Brigham Young. In 1833, Kimball moved his wife and family to Kirtland, Ohio, to be close to the Mormon community there. Ordained one of the original members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in February of 1835, Kimball lead a group of Mormon missionaries to England, returning to the United States in 1838. After leading another mission to England from 1839 to 1841, Kimball returned to the United States and assumed greater influence in the church as the result of the assassination of Joseph Smith in 1844. With Smith's death, Kimball stood next in line of church leadership after Brigham Young. He became a member of the First Presidency of the church in 1847 and led one of the three companies of Mormons to Salt Lake, Utah Territory, a year later. Kimball established his families in Salt Lake and pursued farming, ranching, and milling. He also served in the upper house of the Utah Territorial Legislature from 1851 to 1858. Kimball married forty-three women and had sixty-six children with seventeen of his wives. He died in Salt Lake City as a result of a carriage accident.
Daniel H. Wells (1814-1891)
Wells was born in Trenton, New York and moved with his mother and sister to Hancock County, Illinois, in 1835, a few years after the death of his father, where he became a leading landowner and served as justice of the peace in the town of Commerce, later Nauvoo. When large numbers of Mormons settled in Nauvoo, Wells welcomed them but did immediately join the church. He was baptized in the church in August 1846 and moved to Salt Lake, Utah Territory, with other Mormons in 1848. He subsequently was appointed second counselor in Brigham Young's First Presidency of the church, though never achieved election as a member of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles. He did serve as a counselor to the Quorum of Twelve Apostles for many years, however. From 1848 to 1863 Wells functioned as superintendent of public works for the LDS church and oversaw the continuing construction of the Salt Lake Temple, which was completed in 1893. Wells also served mayor of Salt Lake City, serving several terms during the late 1860s and early 1870s. Wells, who had seven wives and at least thirty-seven children, was arrested in 1871 for polygamy. He died in Salt Lake City at the age of 71.
Abraham Hoagland (1797-1872)
An early Mormon leader and pioneer, Hoagland was born Hillsborough Township, New Jersey, where he apprenticed as a blacksmith. He later moved to Michigan and became a prosperous blacksmith and farmer. It was in 1841, during Hoagland's time in Michigan, that he joined the church of Latter Day Saints. In 1843, he moved his family to Nauvoo, Illinois, where he was ordained an elder in the church by Joseph Smith. Hoagland was subsequently ordained a bishop in the church. After he moved to Salt Lake, Utah Territory, he was elected an alderman of Salt Lake City in 1853 and 1857. Hoagland, who had four wives, died on pneumonia in Salt Lake City.
Edward Hunter (1793-1883)
Born in Newtown, Pennsylvania, Hunter was the third presiding bishop of the Latter Day Saints church from 1851 until 1883. From 1816 to 1822, he pursued a career of a merchant in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and subsequently served in the United States Cavalry for seven years. Hunter converted to Mormonism in 1840 and seven years later migrated to Salt Lake, Utah Territory, during 1846-1847 and served as bishop of the town's 13th Ward from 1849 to 1854. He was elected to the Utah Territorial Assembly in 1851, serving only one term. He served as presiding bishop of the church of LDS longer than anyone else in the church's history. He died in Salt Lake City in 1883.
Lorenzo Dow Young (1807-1895)
Born in Smyrna, New York, Young was the eleventh of thirteen children born to John Young and Abigail Young, and the brother of Brigham Young. Soon after he married Persis Goodall in 1826, Young and his wife moved to Mendon, New York, one of many moves they would make during their marriage. Lorenzo was introduced Mormonism in 1829 by his brothers, Brigham and Joseph. Baptized in the church in 1831, he followed his father to Kirtland, Ohio, where he helped to build the Kirtland Temple. The Young family relocated to Missouri in 1837 and due to persecution they the family moved in 1838 to Scott County, Illinois, where they resided for a few years. In the spring of 1842, Young and his family moved Nauvoo, Illinois, but only for a short time. Lorenzo was selected by his brother Brigham to accompany him to the Utah Territory, and in July 1847, Lorenzo was among the first group of Mormon pioneers to enter the Salt Lake Valley under the leadership of his brother. He served as bishop of the Salt Lake's 18th Ward from 1851 to 1878. At the age of sixty-five, Lorenzo was thrown from his buggy when some children threw a firecracker under the horse. He suffered many years from the injuries. He died in Salt Lake City at the age of eighty-eight.
Porter Rockwell (circa 1813-1878)
Rockwell was born in Belchertown, Massachusetts, and grew up as a neighbor to Joseph Smith, founder of the church of Latter Day Saints. Baptized into the Mormon faith at the age of sixteen in Fayette, New York, the day the church was organized, Rockwell may have been the youngest member of the first group to be baptized into Smith's church. He later moved to Missouri and served as a personal bodyguard of Smith and his successor Brigham Young, earning a reputation as a gunfighter, with nicknames of "Old Port" and "The Destroying Angel of Mormondom." Rockwell was accused of the attempted assassination of Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs in response to the latter's 1838 order evicting Mormons from the state, but was not convicted due to lack of evidence. After Smith's death, Rockwell followed Brigham Young to Utah Territory, and in 1849 was appointed deputy marshal of Salt Lake City, a post he held until his death in 1878. During his time in Salt Lake City Rockwell operated a hotel and brewery.
George A. Smith (1817-1875)
Born in Potsdam, New York, was baptized into the Mormon church in 1832 by his cousin, Joseph Smith, founder of the religion. A year later, he moved with his family to Kirtland, Ohio, where the church headquarters were then located, and then in 1838 he and his family moved to Missouri. During the summers of 1835 to 1837, Smith embarked on missionary work for the church throughout the Eastern United States. In April of 1839, he was ordained as apostle and became a member of the Quorum of the Twelve. After his cousin's death, Smith followed Brigham Young to Utah Territory and later replaced Heber C. Kimball as First Counselor under the First Presidency of Brigham Young, a post he held until his death in 1875. Smith had seven wives who bore twenty children.
Willard Richards (1804-1854)
Richards was born in Hopkinton, Massachusetts and, as a result of an accident at a very young age, suffered a life-long paralysis which limited his physical activities. He thus pursued a teaching career and taught in schools in Massachusetts and New York. At the age of thirty, Richards decided to take up medicine and practiced as a Thomsonian doctor in Holliston, Massachusetts. Upon reading the Book of Mormon, Richards became a convert to the Mormon religion and moved to Kirtland, Ohio, to join the church of Latter Day Saints. After joining the church, he conducted missionary work in the Eastern United States and in England. Ordained an apostle by Brigham Young in 1840, Richards moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, and served as Joseph Smith's private secretary. Two years later he became the Church Historian and Recorder, a post he held until his death in 1854. Richards later served as Second Counselor under the First Presidency of Brigham Young and after his arrival in Utah, he was involved with establishing and editing the Deseret News.
Wilford Woodruff (1807-1898)
Born in Farmington, Connecticut, Woodruff worked for a time worked in a flour mill and sawmill owned by his father. He joined the church of Latter Day Saints in 1833 in Richland, New York, and later accompanied Joseph Smith, the founder of the religion, to Kirtland, Ohio. In 1835 and 1836, Woodruff embarked on missionary work in Arkansas, Tennessee, and Kentucky. In 1839 he conducted missionary work in England. After moving to Nauvoo, Illinois, he became in 1839 a member of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles. After the death of Joseph Smith, Woodruff joined the original pioneers who migrated to Utah with Brigham Young in 1847. In 1855, he became the church historian and served in that role for thirty-three years. In 1877 Woodruff became the president of the church of Latter Day Saints as the senior member of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles. Under political, economic, and legal pressure from the federal government over the practice of polygamy, Woodruff in 1890 issued a manifesto calling for an end to the practice of multiple marriages, though the church did not officially renounce the practice until 1904. Woodruff himself practiced polygamy, marrying at least nine woman and having thirty-four children. After converting to the Mormon faith, Woodruff pursued farming, horticulture, and livestock trade.
Phineas Young (1799-1879)
Born in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Young was the older brother of Brigham and Lorenzo Dow Young. He was a Methodist preacher before he converted to the Mormon religion and, in 1832, after reading the Book of Mormon, he was baptized in the church of Latter Day Saints, a week before his brother Brigham. Upon being ordained an elder in the church, Young commenced missionary work in New York and Canada. Moving to Kirtland, Ohio, and then to Missouri, Young by 1841 was residing in Nauvoo, Illinois. In 1847 he was one of the pioneers that accompanied his younger brother Brigham to Utah Territory. After settling in Salt Lake City, Young pursued missionary work in England. From 1864 through 1871, he served as bishop of Salt Lake City's 2nd Ward. During his time in Salt Lake City, Young worked as a contractor, printer, and saddler. Like many Mormon leaders, he practiced polygamy, marrying nine women.
Erastus Snow (1818-1888)
Snow was born in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, joined the Mormon church in the early 1830s. He subsequently moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where the church headquarters were located, and embarked on missionary work, primarily in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. Among the first Mormon pioneers to migrate West to Utah Territory in 1847, Snow was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1849. That same year he led a mission to Scandinavia and upon his return in 1850 he served as presiding church authority in the Midwest United States, basing his operation in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1860 he carried out missionary work in the Eastern United States and in 1861 he was put in charge of Southern Utah Mormon settlements, living for a time in Arizona Territory. He died in Salt Lake City in 1888.
Orson Hyde (1805-1878)
Born in Oxford, Connecticut, Hyde in 1819 walked some six hundred miles to the town of Kirtland, Ohio, where Nathan Wheeler, who raised Hyde, had purchased land. There he found employment as a clerked in a local store. Originally against the Mormon religion, Hyde changed his views after reading the Book of Mormon. After three months of studying and pondering the doctrines taught by the Latter Day Saints, he was baptized in October 1831. Hyde embarked on missionary work, preaching in Ohio and later throughout the Eastern United States. In February 1835 Hyde was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. During 1837 and 1838 he went with Heber C. Kimball on the first mission to Great Britain, which resulted in the conversion of thousands to the Mormon faith. Hyde had a brief falling out with the Mormon church when in 1838, in the middle of a period of severe persecution of Mormons, he signed an affidavit against the church during the severe persecution of that period, resulting in his expulsion as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Hyde later made things right with Joseph Smith and was again reinstated as an apostle in June 1839. The next year saw him embarking on missionary work in New York, London, Amsterdam, Constantinople, and Jerusalem. On his return trip, he published in Germany the first LDS German tract, Ein Ruf aus der Wüste (A Cry out of the Wilderness; Frankfurt, 1842). In the early 1850s Hyde migrated to Utah and and later headed the Carson Valley Nevada Mission in 1855. Following a lingering illness, Hyde died at his home in Spring City in 1878.
John Taylor (1808-1887)
Born in England where he received his early education and worked as a cooper and as a cabinet maker, Taylor joined the Methodist Church at sixteen and pursued missionary work that took him to America. He and his family moved to Canada in the early 1830s and within a few years, Taylor and his wife converted to the Mormon faith. Taylor and his wife moved to Missouri, where he was ordained an apostle in 1838. He returned to England as a Mormon missionary and then settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, where he edited two newspapers, including Times and Seasons, the official publication of the Mormon church. Taylor was with Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum in an Illinois jail when they were killed by a mob and sustained serious injuries. Taylor traveled to Utah Territory and settled in the Salt Lake Valley soon after the original pioneers had followed Brigham Young to that location. He became a United States citizen in 1849 and served in the Utah territorial assembly from 1853 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the House for much of his tenure. Taylor served as president of two missions, in France and Germany, for the church, and later served as president of the Eastern States missions. In 1852, he oversaw the French translation of the Book of Mormon. Upon the death of Brigham Young in 1877, the Quorum of Twelve Apostles assumed the leadership role of the church, with Taylor serving as president. He became the church's third president in 1880. Taylor had a least seven wives who bore him thirty-four children. He died of congestive heart failure in Kaysville, Utah Territory, in 1887.
Franklin D. Richards (1821-1899)
Born in Richmond, Massachusetts, and as a young man joined the Mormon church and migrated to Nauvoo, Illinois. Richards was involved in missionary work in Great Britain from 1846 to 1848 and, in 1849, he was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. He subsequently returned to England on missionary work, serving as president of the British Mission and later as president of the European Mission. From 1889 until his death, Richards served as the church's twelfth official historian. Richards became president of the Mormon church in 1898, but his term lasted little more than year due to his death from a stroke in December 1899.
Ezra T. Benson (1811-1869)
Benson was born in Mendon, Massachusetts, and lived for several years in Uxbridge, Massachusetts, where he managed a hotel and became a successful businessman. After moving to Quincy, Illinois, he and his wife were baptized into the Church of Latter Day Saints in July 1840. A year later Benson and his family moved to Nauvoo, Illinois. In 1846, Benson was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. He was among the pioneer Mormons who followed Brigham Young to the Utah Territory in 1847. Active in missionary work, Benson traveled throughout the United States and in the Sandwich Islands (later Hawaii). He also served in the Utah Territory Legislature. Like many early Mormons, Benson practiced polygamy, marrying eight women who bore him thirty-five children. Benson died of a heart attack in Ogden, Utah Territory, in September 1869.
Amasa M. Lyman (1813-1877)
Born in Lyman, New Hampshire, Lyman worked as a boatman, farmer, and gunsmith. He was baptized into the Latter Day Saints church in 1832, the same year he moved to Hiram, Ohio. Lyman was involved in missionary work in New York and New Hampshire and subsequently moved to Kirtland, Ohio. In 1837, he moved west, settling in Nauvoo, Illinois in 1841, while continuing his missionary work in such places as Wisconsin and Tennessee. In 1844, Lyman was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and served for a while as counselor in the First Presidency of the LDS church. Layman was among the first group of Mormon pioneers who followed Brigham Young to Utah Territory in 1847. In 1860 Young appointed Lyman and two others to the presidency of the church's European missions. Lyman's preaching certain teachings heretical to the Mormon faith led to his expulsion from the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1867. He was subsequently excommunicated from the church in 1870. Lyman has eight wives and thirty-eight children. He died in Fillmore, Utah Territory, in 1877. In 1909, Lyman was posthumously reinstated as a church member and as an apostle.
Charles C. Rich (1809-1883)
Born in Campbell County, Kentucky, the six feet, four inch, Rich was baptized in the Latter Day Saints church in 1832. He moved from Kentucky to Missouri and lived there until the Mormons were expelled, at which time he moved to Nauvoo, Illinois. After the death of Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Rich became a follower of Brigham Young and was among the original Mormon pioneers who migrated to Utah Territory in 1847. Two years later, in 1849, Rich was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. In 1860, he was appointed president of the British mission of the church of the LDS. Rich followed the church's practice of multiple marriages, having six wives and fifty-one children. He died in Paris, Idaho, as the result of several strokes.
George Q. Cannon (1827-1901)
Born in Liverpool, England, Cannon was thirteen when he, along with his entire family, was baptized in the Mormon faith in 1840. Two years later, Cannon and his family left England for Nauvoo, Illinois, to join the church of LDS. He was among the first Mormon pioneers to follow Brigham Young to the Utah Territory in 1847, and once there embarked on missionary work in the Sandwich Islands (later Hawaii) and in California and Oregon. In 1860, Cannon was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and was appointed president of the church's European missions. In 1873, he was appointed First Counselor to the First Presidency of Brigham Young and three of his successors. Cannon also served four terms in the United States Congress as a territorial delegate. Cannon was married to five women simultaneously and fathered thirty-two children. He was convicted of bigamy in 1888, serving six months in federal prison. Cannon was pardoned by in 1894 by President Grover Cleveland. He died in Monterey, California, in 1901.
H. B. Clawson (1826-1912)
Clawson was born in Utica, New York, where he attended Utica Academy. He was baptized along with his mother into the Latter Day Saints church in 1838. Three years later, in 1841, he and his widowed mother moved to Nauvoo, Illinois. Clawson later migrated to the Utah Territory in 1848, settling in Salt Lake City. A close associate of Brigham Young, Clawson served as Young's business manager for many years. From 1884 until 1902, he served as bishop of Salt Lake City's 12th Ward. Clawson had four wives with whom he had forty-two children.
Lorenzo Snow (1814-1901)
Lorenzo Snow (1814-1901) was born in Mantua, Ohio, and received an education that included one year at Oberlin College. Though raised in a Baptist family, Snow was influenced by the Book of Mormon and by Joseph Smith, founding father of the Mormon faith. A supporter of Mormonism before he was baptized, Snow followed his family to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was baptized into the church in 1836. He soon set out on a series of missions for the Church in early spring 1837, first to the Mantua area, where he baptized some of his friends and relatives, and then to other Ohio counties. In 1838 the Snow and his family joined a Mormon community in Missouri, and Lorenzo left for another mission, this time to Illinois and Kentucky, and later to England. He subsequently settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, where he married four women. He and his families to Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, in 1848. Snow was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1849 and over the next three years he led missions to England, Italy, France, and Switzerland. He later traveled to the Sandwich Islands (later Hawaii), Palestine, and the Pacific Northwest. In 1852 Snow was elected to the Utah territorial legislature, where he served for twenty-nine years, ten of them as president of the Legislative Council. He served as the fifth president of the church of LDS from 1898 to 1901. In 1885, Snow, who had a total of nine wives and forty-two children, was tried and imprisoned for violation of the 1882 Edmunds Act, which prohibited the practice of polygamy. He was sentenced to prison, where he remained for eleven months before being released under mandate of the U.S. Supreme Court. Snow died of pneumonia in October 1901.
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