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    Francesco I de' Medici, Second Grand Duke of Tuscany, Manuscript Document with Gold Leaf Illumination. One vellum page, 23.5" x 17.5", in Latin, Florence [Tuscany, Italy], January 14, 1580. Some separation along the uppermost, vertical fold only slightly affecting the text. Uneven toning.

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    Francesco was born in 1541 and served as regent for his father in 1564. After his father's death in 1574, Francesco assumed the title of Grand Duke. He married, Johanna, the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, but the marriage was not happy and Johanna died in 1578. He then married his mistress, Bianca Capello. He had an interest in the sciences and manufacturing and was a supporter of the arts. Francesco and Bianca died on the same day, October 17, 1587, of malaria.

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