Civil War Broadside "Conditions of Peace." One printed page, 12" x 18.75", New York, April 24, 1861. Threats of secession were a common feature of American politics from the country's first days. On December 20, 1860, the secession threat became a reality when South Carolina formally seceded from the Union. The states of Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed suit and formed the new Confederate States of America. Tensions erupted at Fort Sumter after the Federal garrison there refused to abandon their post. A Confederate bombardment began on April 12, 1861, and the Civil War was underway. The fort surrendered two days later.

    Issued just ten days after the surrender of Fort Sumter, this broadside, the work of New York college professor and ordained minister, Lemuel Gregory Olmstead (1816-1880), contains eight articles the rebel states must comply with for peace to prevail. Headed by the full title, "Conditions of Peace Required of the So-Called Seceded States," the eight articles are as follows:

    "Article 1. Unconditional submission to the Government of the United States.
    Article 2. To deliver up ONE HUNDRED of the ARCH TRAITORS, to be hung.
    Article 3. To put on Record the Names of all others who have been traitorous to the Government, who shall be held infamous, and disfranchised, for ever.
    Article 4. The Property of all Traitors to be confiscated, to pay the damage.
    Article 5. The Seceded States to pay all the balance of the expense, and restore all Stolen Property.
    Article 6. The payment of all debts due to Northerners, and indemnity for all indignities to persons, loss of time, life, and property.
    Article 7. The removal of the cause of all our difficulties, which can only be done by the immediate and unconditional abolition of Slavery.
    Article 8. Until a full compliance with all the above terms, the so-called Seceded States to be held and governed as United States territory."

    Immediately after issuing his "demands" he places a final sentence: "The above is the least that an indignant people will accept, outraged as they have been, by the foulest, most heinous, and gigantic instance of crime recorded in history." Folds are weakened with areas of separation at the edges and intersections of the vertical and horizontal folds with some very minor loss of paper, though the text remains virtually unaffected. Light water damage is found directly through the middle of the document, again with no adverse affect to the text. Minor chipping along the edges.

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