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    33rd Illinois Infantry: 1862 Civil War Diary of Private Edward H. Ingraham.
    A pocket diary belonging to Private Ingraham, dating from January 1 to December 31, 1862. Edward Ingraham was a resident of Akron, Illinois before the Civil War broke out. He enlisted as a private in August 1861, and was quickly mustered into Company B of the 33rd Illinois Infantry. Ingraham served as an orderly with the unit's field hospital and was present at all of the major engagements the 33rd IL were part of throughout the South and into Texas. When his three-year term of service expired, he reenlisted on January 1, 1864. Over the course of his military career, he was promoted to the rank of Corporal. He survived the war and was finally mustered out at Vicksburg on November 24, 1865. After the war, he married a Miss Mary Ann Thorpe, and the couple moved to Oregon, where Ingraham practiced medicine. Towards the end of his life, he suffered from mental illness and was sent to the Oregon State Mental Hospital a handful of times. He passed away at the asylum on July 15, 1894 at the age of 62.

    Ingraham's diary begins on January 1, and his short entries record his daily activities, along with troop drills and movements, and weather reports. As an orderly in the camp hospitals, he provides descriptions of the conditions of the sick and wounded. The diary is written in pencil, and there are entries for every day of the year. Entries are legible, with few grammar or spelling errors. What follows is a sampling of his entries, all written during the year 1862:

    In part: "[Feb. 8] Slept last night at Brigade hospital Ironton where I have just been detailed as a nurse. Ward no. 16 (scarlet fever ward) is assigned to me. I have now six patients. [Feb. 16] Two new patients brought in and placed in my ward. Abram Bunnel and Wilson T. Corwin. The former has Quincy and the other lung fever. New guns arrived. [Feb. 17] Only three sick are now under my care. Shaw and the other two new cases. Bunnel is much better today. Wrote to Susie & Mary and sent a likeness of Dunk (his brother Duncan G. Ingraham) and I. New guns issued. [Mar. 4] I am sick today, threatened with Typhoid Pneumonia had to give up my knapsack & gun, P.M. rode in the wagon a mile or two. The regiment cut across over the mountain (two miles shorter) Reached the river shore opposite Greeneville. [Mar. 9] 33rd marched for Black River 18 miles southwest. Having an attack of Pneumonia in left lung. I was cupped and sent to the 21st hospital Greeneville. [Apr. 13] Airing the tents, sleeping a part of the day under the influence of Dr. Rex's celebrated, Self acting (opium) 'restraining pills.' [May 21] On guard today. Wrote to Alice. Election in camp today via voix to adopt or reject the constitution recently got up in Illinois. Went out towards Batesville with three others to arrest stragglers. Found only one. [May 28] Detailed to nurse in the hospital tents for 24 hours. There are only 16 of the regiment lying sick. [July 4] Co. B rose at 1 A.M. marched before day with 4 companies from other regiments & a lot of cavalry with little howitzers. Marched 8 miles down. Cavalry surprised 70 or 80 rebel swimmers. We captured four wagons of provisions etc. Found a lot of clothing in the brake. [July 7] Marched suddenly about noon (waded a creek) to reinforce Hovey Cos A-I of 33rd & 4 or 5 Cos. Of Wis. 11 & 1 of 1st Ind. Cavalry fought and repulsed 1000 rebels this morning. They took 6 wagon loads of dead leaving 135 to be buried by us & 50 wounded. Our loss 7 killed, 36 wounded. Cols. Hovey & Harris & Capt. Potter wounded. [July 8] (Manter shelled a cornfield yesterday & killed five wounded several.) On guard last night & today at the hospital. Started after sundown with the wounded men. Reached camp 13 miles at 12. [Aug. 4] The rebel boat Era no. 6 came up with a flag of truce ostensibly to exchange prisoners. Ram 'Sampson' and boat City of Alton came in at the same time. Co. A fight near Wilson's Landing with rebels repulse them and come up on boat. Corp. Lewis killed. Corp. Bovee wounded also a negress & several others. [Sept. 19] A regiment of guerillas fired on us with 2 or 3 howitzers about o'clock A.M. Killing sargt & Mich Kelly Co I and Fred Lindhorst (battery) and wounding Wm Long (bat) and Henry Green (co. I) the last mortally. Fired my rifle 5 times during the fight. Burnt out Judge McGuire provost 33. [Sept 26] Orderly Gill got back from Ills. Clear Warm Breezy. Co. A & I had a skirmish with some rebels who fired on our teams. We lost one killed and five wounded. Capt. Potter shot through the arm, had his horse shot. [Dec. 31] Mustered for pay by General Davidson. Salute by the artillery guns. We drew blankets, shoes haversacks and pants today. Acted in the muster as color guard. Dudley on brigade guard tonight. Generals Davidson and Benton both serenaded by the band."

    Throughout the months of July and August 1862, the city of Clarendon, Arkansas became a focal point for the Union Army, as their chain of supplies flowed through the White River. Because of this, numerous skirmishes and battles took place in and around the city. The Union was victorious in repulsing a Confederate attack on Clarendon in July, and General Alvin Hovey fully captured the city in August. Ingraham also provides small descriptions of the activities around Laconia Landing and the fight at Bolivar Landing. At the back of his diary, he provides a detailed list of letters he mailed, complete with dates and recipients. There is also a list of debts owed, with amounts and dates due. Finally, in the Cash Accounts section of the diary, Ingraham adds a note concerning the terms of the Homestead Act of June 1, 1863, which he may have added at a later date. Although the diary is well worn, with obvious signs of use, toning, and soiling, it is still in good condition and is well preserved.

    Accompanying the diary is a Carte de Visite Signed "E.H. Ingraham." The vignette bust portrait of Ingraham, measuring 2.5" x 4", shows the young private dressed in his shell jacket. With an Anderson & Turner, New Orleans imprint on verso, Negative No. 9199. The image and signature are clear, despite minor soiling and toning. On verso is a cancelled 2-cent revenue stamp.

    From the L. B. Paul Collection

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