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    The Rare First Edition of One of the
    Most Important Medieval Texts on Logic

    William [Guillelmus] of Ockham [Occam, Ockam]. Expositio aurea & admdum utilis super Arte[m] veterem edita per venerabilem inceptorem fratre[m] Guilielmum de Occhamcu[m] questionibus Alberti parvi de Saxonia. [Porphyrius, Isagoge in Aristotelis Praedicamenta. Aristoteles, Praedicamenta. De Interpretatione. Albertus de Saxonia, Quaestiones]. Bologna: Benedictus Hectoris Faelli, 12 July, 1496. Folio. Approximately 10.25 x 7.75 inches. a-y6. [lacks y6, register, blank on verso]. [131 of 132] leaves. First Edition. Rare editio princeps of one of the most important medieval texts on logic. No copy, other than this, has been at auction for 30 years. Only one copy is recorded in the U. S. and there is no copy in the British Library. Later Italian vellum, rebacked to style in vellum with edges sprinkled in red, ink spine titles. Washed and restored throughout, still some occasional browning and staining, scattered old marginalia. Inner lower corner restorations to all leaves, with loss of text to several leaves (especially the title-page and the text of Albert of Saxony, and last leaf). Early annotations and index on first blank by "frater Theodera ex Baslare."
    Also this edition has a letter to Johann Trechsel by Johannes Baptista Millanus and a note on Marcus Beneventanus by Alexander Mazlous.
    Goff O10(1 copy in US-- Philadelphia Free Library). Hain 11950*. Pell Ms 8652 (8527). Hillard 951. IBE 4162. IGI 6954. Gnt(L) 479. BSB-Ink G-503. GW 11909. ISTC io00010000. From the Collection of Krown & Spellman.
    Please visit HA.com for an extended description of this lot.


    More Information:

    Ockham [Occam, Ockam], William [Guillelmus] of. Expositio aurea & admdum utilis super Arte[m] veterem edita per venerabilem inceptorem fratre[m] Guilielmum de Occhamcu[m] questionibus Alberti parvi de Saxonia.
    [Porphyrius, Isagoge in Aristotelis Praedicamenta. Aristoteles, Praedicamenta. De Interpretatione. Albertus de Saxonia, Quaestiones] Bologna: Benedictus Hectoris Faelli, 1496, 12 July. Folio. a-y6.[lacks y6, register, blank on verso] [131 of 132]leaves. Later Italian vellum, rebacked with edges sprinkled in red; washed and restored throughout, still some occasional browning and staining, scattered old marginalia. Inner lower corner restorations with loss of text to c. 15 leaves (esp. the t.p. and the text of Albert of Saxony,and last leaf.) Early annotations and index on first blank by "frater Theodera ex Baslare".
    We include with this book a facsimile of this edition published in 1964 by Gregg Press. Typ. 1:109/110R, 2:84R, 12:75G. Editio Princeps. First Edition. Rare editio princeps of one of the most important medieval texts on logic. No copy, other than this, has been at auction for 30 years. Only one copy is recorded in the US and there is no copy in the BL.
    Ockham, William (c.1287Ð1347), philosopher, theologian, and political theorist, later known as the Venerable Inceptor, was born at Ockham, north-east of Guildford in Surrey.
    "A pioneer of nominalism , some consider him the father of modern epistemology and modern philosophy in general, because of his strongly argued position that only individuals exist, rather than supra-individual universals, essences, or forms, and that universals are the products of abstraction from individuals by the human mind and have no extra-mental existence. Ockham is sometimes considered an advocate of conceptualism rather than nominalism, for whereas nominalists held that universals were merely names, i.e. words rather than existing realities, conceptualists held that they were mental concepts, i.e. the names were names of concepts, which do exist, although only in the mind.
    Ockham is also considered one of the greatest logicians of all time. One important contribution that he made to modern science and modern intellectual culture was through the principle of parsimony in explanation and theory building that came to be known as Ockham's razor , which states that one should always opt for an explanation in terms of the fewest possible number of causes, factors, or variables."[wkpd]
    The Expositio aurea gives in the form of a commentaries on Aristotle and Porphyry logic his views on logic, epistemology and metaphysics. "The Expositio is commonly regarded as the second most important of Ockham's logical works (after the Summa Logicae). According to the medieval reconstruction, logic has to do with arguments, while arguments are composed of propositions which in turn are made up of terms. A systematic treatment of the subject should thus begin with a commentary on Aristotle's Categories, which has to do with terms; proceed to the Perihermenias, which concerns propositions; and conclude with Sophistical Refutations and Analytics, which distinguish fallacious from valid argument forms... Ockham's attempts to interpret Aristotle as holding the ontological opinions that Ockham himself would have held had he been guided by natural reason alone. [Marilyn McCord Adams in Philosophical Review vol 89, pp 129-137]
    "In the Expositio aurea... a development of the whole of logic and the doctrine of knowledge, he criticises Realism and recalls men from the false methods of the moderns to Aristotelian logic. For him universal methods do not exist extra animum, are are only objects of presentation, which inwardly reproduces the immediate first images of the perception of things, signs, whereby the soul designates the perceived object and a multiplicity of similar objects. All knowledge is based on outward and inward expeerience, and therefore excluded the knowledge of supersensous things, which, hence, cannot be rationally treated by means of evidence. Out of this nominalist doctrine of knowledge there proceeds for him an entirely incommensurable relation between faitgh and knowledge, theological and philosophical truth. Theology is not a science, in the proper sense, because it lacks knowable content, and accordingly the necessary scientific form of proof in the strict sense; it is based neither on intuition (experience) nor on convincing argumentation. Hence there is no evident knowledge in the case of the truths of faith; they rest solely on authority." [Wilhelm Ernst Moller, History of the Christian Church, v2, 466ff.]

    Albert of Saxony (Latin Albertus de Saxonia; (c. 1320 Ð 8 July 1390) was a German philosopher known for his contributions to logic and physics. Albert was a pupil of Jean Buridan and was very much influenced by Buridan's teachings on physics and logic. As a natural philosopher, he worked in the tradition of John Buridan and contributed to the spread of Parisian natural philosophy throughout Italy and central Europe. Albert's work in logic also shows strong influence by William of Ockham, whose commentaries on the logica vetus (on Porphyry, and Aristotle's Categoriae and De interpretatione) were made the subject of a series of works called Quaestiones by Albert. [wkpd]

    Campsall, Richard (c.1280Ðc.1330), theologian, was born at Campsall, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The catalogue of St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury, ascribes two works to CampsallÑQuestiones super tres libros phisicorum and Notabilitates eiusdem super omnes libros phisicorumÑbut neither is known to be extant. Campsall's certain writings are a series of twenty disputed questions of c.1306 on the Prior Analytics; a disputed question, Whether Matter Can Be Without Form; aphorisms On Contingency and Foreknowledge, extant in one manuscript, but also in a Bologna printing of 1496 from a slightly variant manuscript base; and a short essay on the universal." [ODNB]

    Also this edition has a letter to Johann Trechsel by Johannes Baptista Millanus and a note on Marcus Beneventanus by Alexander Mazlous.


    Goff O10(1 copy in US-- Philadelphia Free Library) ; Hain 11950* ; Pell Ms 8652 (8527) ; Hillard 951 ; IBE 4162 ; IGI 6954 ; Gnt(L) 479 ; BSB-Ink G-503 ; GW 11909 ;Husung, Druckerzeichen 10; ISTC io00010000.



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