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    Theodore Roosevelt Typed Letter Signed to Senator Shelby Cullom. One page of a bifolium, 7.25" x 8.75", on White House stationery, June 26, 1906, signed "Theodore Roosevelt". In the letter, Roosevelt reiterates his concerns about the crisis surrounding Morocco, which was discussed at the Algeciras Conference. Around this time, the U.S. Senate had held a strong stance in avoiding European affairs and disputes. But, the Algeciras Conference, and the building threat of international crisis in Morocco had concerned Roosevelt enough that he accepted the invitation to the conference and appointed representatives from the U.S. to attend.

    The treaty that he makes reference to in the letter to Senator Cullom is the General Act (or Treaty) that had been agreed upon at the conclusion of that Conference, and which had to be ratified by our Senate. Roosevelt states, in characteristic style, "I am literally unable to understand how any human being can find anything whatever to object to in this treaty; and to reject it would mean that for the first time since the adoption of the Constitution this Government will be without a treaty with Morocco. It seems incredible that there should be a serious purpose to put us in such a position". The U.S. Senate would go on to pass a specific resolution as to the form of the ratification, and the General Act would finally be ratified in December 1906.

    Condition: Slight toning with a hole-punch in upper left corner. Light soiling, foxing, and mail fold, linear stain on verso, likely resulting from being previously bound with a rubber band or soiled string.

    More Information:

    The tensions in Morocco had sprung from an alliance made between Britain and France in 1904. The Entente Coridal agreement acknowledged Britain's authority in Egypt, while also supporting France's control in Morocco. This new "cordiality" between Britain and France meant the further isolation of Germany in European policy. Therefore, in March, 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II travelled to Moroccan capital, Tangier, and gave a rousing speech that called for an international conference to discuss Morocco's independence. In the speech he made clear hints at the idea that if a conference did not occur that war might be inevitable. It was the Kaisers hope that he would be able to establish a new alliance with France through this conference, which would weaken the Entente Cordial.


    President Roosevelt was well aware of the Senate's policy to not get embroiled in European disputes, and he himself did not want to get involved until the crisis reached the point where it could not be ignored. Roosevelt had to relent and convinced France as well to attend the conference. The Kaiser's plan backfired when many of the initial arrangements and discussions excluded Germany, and Britain would go on to fully support France in her claim over Morocco. Thus, the Entente Cordial was further strengthened and Germany was further isolated. These events would add fuel to the growing tension between the European powers, which would ultimately result in the outbreak of the First World War.

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