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    Stand Watie Archive Related to the Removal of Cherokees from the State of Georgia. An archive of more than 20 documents from the years 1827-1860 of personal and official correspondences, court papers, and treaty related manuscripts, including a Stand Watie ADS and a John Ross ADS.

    Although a previous treaty had awarded the Cherokee Nation land in Georgia, the demand for land by white settlers brought many problems for Indians and the courts of the State of Georgia repeatedly refused to protect the interests of Indians who brought cases before them. A faction grew within the Cherokee Nation that believed that the only way they could hope to retain their wealth and rights was by ceding all lands belonging to the Cherokee and settling out west. This faction (which included Watie and his extended family), although representative of only a minority of the Cherokee, negotiated and signed what became known as the New Echota Treaty of 1835. Despite opposition by the rest of the Cherokee Nation, the Treaty was ratified by the U.S. Government, and thus began a period of unrest among the Cherokee that would continue until 1845.

    Included in this archive are letters and documents regarding the struggles within the Cherokee Nation that provide insight into the issues as experienced by Watie and his family who were members of the Treaty Party. John Ross would become the leader of the majority group and his faction is referred to as the "Ross Party" within the context of this archive. Our research revealed that it was difficult to write about these documents in an objective manner. Both printed books (however scholarly in nature) and information online were equally unsuccessful in presenting information without giving evidence of the writer's opinion on the righteousness of either Watie or Ross. Therefore, what we list below is what we hope to be an accurate accounting of the materials contained, and the relevance to the events at hand.

    [Stand Watie] Harriet Boudinot Autograph Letter Signed, 2 pages, "Cornwall", March 21, no year. With integral address cover addressed to Stand Watie, New Echota, Cherokee Nation, Georgia. Sending family news and greetings as well as expressing her views about current negotiations with the state of Georgia. In part: "... we cannot expect those who are ignorant & have never enjoyed the advantages of education to come forward themselves & rise to respectability... We cannot stand on mutual ground, but while we live, are obliged to act on one side or the other, and our influence, whether good or bad will be felt, perhaps for ages to come... " Although undated, the letter is likely written in the mid 1830s at around the time the signing of the 1835 Treaty ceding Indian lands to the state of Georgia. Harriet's words eerily predict the division that would later occur between supporters of the Treaty and those that objected. Light dampstaining and separations at folds.

    Two Slave Receipts.
    1) A receipt for $12 dollars for payment made by Elias Boudinot "in part payment for the hire of a negro man... for one year commencing March 1, 1832". Heavy wear and some soiling, but intact. Elias Boudinot was the brother of Stand Watie, and would be killed by supporters of John Ross in 1839. 2) A Receipt for $750 for full payment "for a negro man named Andy" issued to Andrew M. Varn, dated May 18, 1841. Complete separations have been repaired with cello resulting in heavy staining forming a T. Otherwise ink is bold and completely legible.

    John Ross Autograph Document Signed
    in full, one page, 8" x 4.25", Philadelphia, April 8, 1836. Directing Joshua Barker to "let bearer Mr. Jas. E. Lake have the amt of money collected from Joseph Eastburn". Slight dampstaining along left margin, otherwise near fine.

    Cherokee Treaty of 1846. Draft Agreement, 2 pages, 8" x 10", undated but likely circa 1846, in an unknown hand, stating that the undersigned (no signatures present) will abide to the terms dictated by the Treaty as to be settled by the President of the United States. In part:
    "The undersigned delegation from the Cherokee people now in the city of Washington and representing what are called and known by the designation of Government, Treaty & Settler Parties, being Sincerely desirous of [fo]rever removing all Just cause of complaint of Securing Public harmony, and individual Safety and of restoring peace harmony and a good understanding among the whole Cherokee People, and fully confiding in the Justice, Wisdom and impartiality of the President of the united States as well as in his disposition to aid us in effecting those results, do hearby[sic] agree to Submit all matters in controversy among the Several Parties of the Cherokee People so represented by us to any three persons selected and named by the President to be Settled by Them on Principles of Equity, Justice and right and do hearby [sic]bind ourselves for and on behalf of ourselves and those we represent to abide the award which may be made by such persons and sign to sign Seal and execute such treaty or other instrument of agreement as may be deemed necessary to insure the carrying out of such award, Provided the same also be signed by the President and such other persons as may be [req]uisite to bind the United States In Testamony [sic]whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals." Heavy dampstaining, and a few areas of paper loss affecting 4-6. This is likely a working draft of the agreement created binding the Old Settlers and the Treaty Party (of which Watie was a member) parties to the Cherokee Treaty of 1846 that served to settle the violent hostilities that plagued the Cherokee as a result of the resettlement out west. The faction led by John Ross was also present in Washington to make their case before the President. The resulting treaty was signed by all factions, including Stand Watie and John Ross, on August 6, 1846. This treaty decreed that the lands in the Cherokee Nation were for the use of all Cherokees, provided for the adjudication of all Cherokee Claims as well as the adjustment of other unsettled matters, and provided amnesty to fugitives accused of wrongdoing during the previous years of warring (1839-1844).

    [Stand Watie] Robert Armstrong Autograph Letter Signed,
    three pages, 8" x 9.75", Beaties Prairie, Ark, May 22, 1846, addressed to "Colonel Stand Watie / Treaty Delegation. C. Nation / Washington D.C." Great content letter sending news of a "secret meeting... held on Spring Creek at the house of Sundays about 500 persons... from every district of the Nation. Great commotion exists among the Ross party. What the result of the meeting no one here knows but it will leak out ... Judge Mc[illeg.] his Eldest son& old James McDaniels have been compelled to leave their homes as their lives were threatened by the ross Party... " Additional news about the kidnapping of a few young women "by the party and kept as prisoners for about two hours". Addressed cover on the integral page also includes an attestation of the contents of the letter signed by 6 men including David Bell and S.W. Bell, both from Watie's clan. This letter was received by Watie during his stay in Washington during negotiations for the Cherokee Treaty of 1846. A few areas of light dampstaining, but otherwise near fine. An important documentation of the ongoing strife within the Cherokee Nation.

    [John Ross Party] Financial Statement of Losses Sustained Through Theft and Destruction, 1839-1844.
    One page, 7.5" x 12.5", no date, no place. Itemized listing of "damages sustained from the Ross party". Total amount of claim is $1620, and notes the "thieves being tried and convicted". Light dampstaining, otherwise bold ink and very good.

    Willson Cordry Statement and Claim
    filed against the United States for the loss of house, land and property "abandoned in the year 1845" in the amount of $141.62. Sworn before and signed by John Thompson Adair as judge in the Superior Court of the Cherokee Nation on December 17, 1846. Cordry has signed with his mark. On the verso is a signed statement by Warren Miller (signed with his mark) confirming the Cordry's claim. With a docket noting this as claim number 42. This claim was filed and settled under the terms of the Cherokee Treaty of 1846, as Cordry was likely forced to leave his home under duress suffered at the hands of the Ross party.

    John Watie Document Signed
    , one page, 8" x 7", "Beaties Prairie, C Nation", August 24, 1846. A pay order for $96.25 "for the clothing and other articles received for the use of the men under my command." John Watie signs at bottom adding his rank as "Capt commanding". Dampstaining, and paper loss affecting two words.

    Stand Watie Autograph Document Signed in full, one page, 7.5" x 9", Honey Creek Cherokee Nation, Jan. 1, 1850. A listing of good "For Sale cheap for cash" including millstones, bolting cloth, and assorted sundries. With various notations and figures at bottom and on verso, this was likely a piece of scrap paper that was used several times with different purposes. Significant paper loss at margins, affecting several words. Watie's signature is intact, although affected by dampstaining which appears throughout.

    [Stand Watie] Certification by the Superintendents and Clerks of the Delaware District of the Cherokee Nation that Stand Watie has been elected as a member of the National Council at the next annual session in October. One page, 8" x 12.5", Delaware District, Oklahoma, august 2, 1853. Signed by 16 individuals, and docketed on verso as being "Stand Watie's Certificate". Very fragile with separations at folds and a few pinholes at top.

    Although not originally a part of this archive, the following documents are included and provide a backdrop against which the conflict between the different Cherokee factions occurred:
    George M. Troup Document Signed as governor of Georgia, 2 pages, 8" x 10", June 18, 1827. Issued to William N. Brimer, a land grant for 202 and a half acres of "the land acquired of the Creek Nation of Indians by a Treaty." Together with the survey of land granted and State of Georgia wax seal. A few repairs on verso to separations at folds, soiling and toning.
    Wilson Lumpkin Document Signed as governor of Georgia, 2 pages, 8" x 10", December 12, 1832. Issued to Joseph E. Akridge, a land grant for 40 acres of "the Gold Region in the Lands at present in the occupancy of the Cherokee Indians..." Repaired folds, with a bit of paper loss, with State of Georgia wax seal present and the survey of lands granted.
    Surveyor's Plat for 160 Acres Drawn in Cherokee Land Lottery awarded to George Perdell. One page, 8" x 10", June 30, 1832. Toned, a few instances of separations at folds, and small amounts of paper loss due to chipping, most notably at the lower margin.
    William Lambert Autograph Letters Signed, 2 pages, 8" x 10", Washington, Jan. 17, 1833, to Thomas Green of Richmond, Virginia. Excellent content regarding Congress during the Cherokee Indians Appeal to Georgia's land claims. In small part: "... I think it will pass both Houses if time will permit. Mr. [Henry] Clay is not opposed to giving more land... he will vote for the present bill... You will see by the papers the interesting Documents and speech of Mr [John] Calhoun; what will the State right Jackson-Van Buren men say to the message..." Near fine condition, save a small amount of paper loss to the integral cover.
    Letter from the Secretary of War transmitting the information required by a resolution of the House of Representatives of the 2d instant, in relation to the Cherokee Indians east of the Mississippi. 13pp. 8vo. Printed by Thomas Allen. In period wraps with printed title "Sec'y of War Letter on Cherokees / January 9, 1838" on top wrap. Pristine condition.

    For a listing of additional items in this archive please go to We strongly recommend that all interested bidders examine the archive carefully for content and condition. Ex. Doris Harris.

    More Information:

    Three promissory notes from 1836 issued to Caganattuga and Daylight, all have signed with their mark. One of the promissory note issued to Caganattuga has a second pictograph signature beneath.


     [Stand Watie] P Woodward Autograph Letter Signed, one page, 5.75" x 7", Tahlequah C.N., February 13, 1850. Notifying Watie that the sender has turned over forty dollars received from John P. Dodd. Slightly toned, near fine.


    [Stand Watie] Letter signed "Cornelius", Van Buren, May 29, 1860, addressed to "Dear Uncle", sending an accounting of expenses, and sending news of his employment as editor of a newspaper.   Near fine, save a few points of paper loss at folds.


    [Stand Watie] Charles E. Watie Autograph Letter Signed, 4 pages, 7.75" x 10", "Rough & Ready", [California], March 13, 1855. Addressed to "My Dear Brother", sending news that times are hard, and that there is no work in the mines. He writes, " I have long wished to go home, but didn't like the thought of returning empty handed" and adds that he believes his son, Jack is dead. Heavy dampstaining and mends to fold separations, fair condition.


    [Stand Watie]  Autograph Letter Signed addressed to Capt. Stand Watie, one page, 8" x 12.5", "At home", August 11, 1847. A letter of transmittal for a letter to be sent on to the President, in his letter the sender asks for Watie's opinion regarding its contents and other matters regarding the Council. Signed, but the paper loss caused by ink burn makes it impossible to discern the signer. Significant paper loss at top affects a good portion of the text.


    [Stand Watie] A Payment from Horse Fly Estate to John Fallen in the amount of $20.50. Payment is made by Watie as executor of the estate, and John Fallen has signed with his mark. A few stray instances of dampstaining on margins, otherwise near fine.


    [Stand Watie] J.W. Washbourne Autograph Document Signed, one page, 7.5" x 6.25", Honey Creek, C.N., July 31, 1848; acknowledging that he has received $67.00 from Watie for Sarah B.A. Ridge, widow of John Ridge.  The document also notes that he is also taking possession of various notes owed to Mrs. Ridge.  Light staining and uneven margins.


    [John Ridge Estate] Two documents listing debts owed to the estate. Sworn to and signed by executors William Childers and John Watie, stating that the debt is true. Both documents are toned with paper loss.


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