DescriptionFrancisco "Pancho" Villa Typed Letter Signed "Francisco Villa." Two pages, 8.5" x 11", in Spanish, on Army of the North letterhead, Ciudad Juárez [Chihuahua], October 8, 1915. Gen. Pancho Villa, who had been chasing Gen. Venustiano Carranza through the spring, had moved his army north into the state of Chihuahua and was at the city of Chihuahua when he learned of the murder of the brother of his friend Gen. Felipe Riveros, governor of Sinaloa. On October 3, he wrote a letter to Riveros vowing to bring his brother's killers to justice, but the letter was returned. Now at Juárez, just over the border from El Paso, Texas, Villa wrote a second letter, which reads, in part:
"With this messenger, I am sending you the original letter that I sent several days ago to you in Chihuahua . . . The postal employee looked for you unsuccessfully at the hotel. Not finding you, he returned the letter to my office because he was informed that you had left for Ciudad Juárez, accompanied by General Garza Cárdenas. Since I was just about to leave for that city, I decided to take this letter with me and personally deliver it to you, as well as verbally explain to you its contents. but this morning my friend Garza Cárdenas told me that you had already left yesterday to journey to the interior of the United States. . . . I am pleased to send you the letter previously mentioned so many times, so that you are aware of the formal resolution I have taken to punish your brother Don Jesus' assassin and render justice to whomever it corresponds. I hope that being convinced of the sincerity of my ideas and actions you will . . . come to this city as soon as possible in order for me to have the pleasure to embrace you and talk a while before leaving on campaign which I must do shortly."
Minor separation of the horizontal fold at the right edge of both pages. Previously repaired on the second page, resulting in adhesive ghosting on the recto, touching portions of Villa's signature.
Shortly after sending this letter, Villa left for Sonora to root out and destroy the army of Gen. Venustiano Carranza. He was handily defeated on November 1 at the Second Battle of Agua Prieta and fled back to the mountains of Chihuahua.
One year earlier, in 1914, Venustiano Carranza, chief of the Revolution and leader of the Constitutional Army with whom Villa had allied himself against Gen. Victoriano Huerta, then president of Mexico, called for a convention to meet in the city of Aguascalientes to settle the differences between the four main generals responsible for overthrowing Huerta (who had himself overthrown President Francisco Madero in 1913). General Eualio Gutierrez was elected president with Villa serving as the commander of the Conventionalist Army. Carranza, for his part, decided to ignore the agreements of the convention. Villa, who hated Carranza and feared that he would set himself up as dictator, reconciled with Gen. Emiliano Zapata and took up arms against Carranza. Carranza fled to Veracruz and Villa and Zapata seized Mexico City. The armies of Villa and Carranza engaged several times in the spring of 1915, resulting in the defeat of Villa's troops at every turn, culminating at the Second Battle of Agua Prieta.
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