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    Emiliano Zapata Typed Circular Signed. One page, 8.5" x 13.25". Headquarters at Tlaltizapán; February 9, 1916. An order issued "to all civilian leaders, official, and soldiers of all ranks in the army of liberation to impede all persons from crossing from the Revolutionary zone to the enemy zone or vice versa, regardless of their stated reason for travel." The order goes on to state that it is their responsibility to fulfill the command "to the letter". The document closes, "Reform, Liberty, Justice, and Order... Commanding General [signed] Emiliano Zapata."

    This circular was issued in Tlaltizapán, a city in the Mexican state of Morelos. Zapata was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, and had helped oust Porfirio Diaz in 1911; but when Francisco Madero came to power, he broke ties with Zapata. Madero's forces chased Zapata to Morelos, burning everything in their path in hopes of discouraging the peasants from supporting Zapata. By 1916 there would be two more coups in Mexico: Victoriano Huerta would oust Madero in 1913; and with Zapata's help, Venustiano Carranza would oust Huerta in 1914. But Carranza would also turn on Zapata, and Carranza, like Madero, sent his troops to Morelos to help oust the Zapatistas. Issued in 1916, this circular was intended to tightly monitor and control what little territory they had captured. Zapata would regain control of the entire state of Morelos the following year, only to be killed in an ambush in 1919.

    Condition: Flattened folds, with age toning and slight discoloration at margins. Zapata's signature is large and closed with a flourish. The ink blossom along the cross of the "t" in no way detracts from the appearance of this near fine document.

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    Auction Dates
    April, 2016
    5th Tuesday
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