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    Emiliano Zapata Typed Circular, Addressed to Brig. Gen. Mucio Marín, Signed "Emiliano Zapata". Two pages, front and back, 8.5" x 13.25", Tlaxcuapa, Mexico; June 7, 1916. The circular, written in Spanish, is typed on Liberation Army of the South General Headquarters letterhead and stamped "Circular" at the top left margin.

    Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata came to power during the 1910 Revolution against Felix Diaz, the nephew and successor of Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz. Zapata sought to empower the indigenous lower classes and led the peasants' revolt in Morelos. The circular has been translated, and in the following bulleted instructions, Zapata outlines the importance of intelligence and security, and he commands his subordinates to report on all of Felix Diaz's movements. It reads, in part:

    "This Headquarters has news that known reactionary leader Felix Diaz, nephew of dictator Porfirio Diaz, has landed on the Veracruz coast and made contact with the State of Oaxaca; he comes to the country with the purpose of making a counter-revolution in favor of the landowners, technocrats, intellectuals, and bosses...This movement threatens the principles of the Revolution, and therefore it is urgent to be on guard and guard against the new faction...who only try to regain power for Porfiristas, Huertistas, landowners, bosses, and friends of these. For this reason the Headquarters orders you comply with the following instructions...It is strictly forbidden for commanders, officers and soldiers of the Liberation Army to enter talks, conferences, or arrangements of any sort, whether verbal or correspondence, with individuals belonging to the faction led by General Felix Diaz...Do not permit for any reason the Felicistas' entrance to the area controlled by the Liberation Army, and if a force of them intends to invade, they will be beaten and expelled by force of arms as if dealing with a Carrancista force, as both factions are equally enemies of the revolution...Prevent any Felicisimo leaders from doing any kind of propaganda in the revolutionary zone and therefore collect and destroy any copies of the manifestos, plans and other documents published by Felix Diaz and his supporters...Collect all weapons, ammunition and items intended for the enemy Felicista...Explain to the townspeople the true tendencies of Felicisimo, and make today more than ever propaganda of our ideals. To this end distribute in all populations the manifestos, newspapers and writings from this Headquarters...Reprint and circulate the Plan de Ayala and Agrarian Law...Individuals who violate any of these orders will be punished by this Headquarters and will be regarded as treason to the revolutionary cause." Zapata signs at the conclusion with a large, elaborate signature.

    Zapata was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution and had helped oust Porfirio Diaz in 1911, after making a quiet alliance with Francisco I. Madero. However, once Madero came to power, he broke ties with Zapata and sent his own forces to chase Zapata and his supporters to Morelos. Madero's men burned everything in their path in hopes of discouraging the peasants from supporting Zapata. By 1916, there would be two more coups in Mexico: Victoriano Huerta would oust Madero in 1913; and with Zapata's help, Venustiano Carranza would oust Huerta in 1914. Carranza would also turn on Zapata, and Carranza, like Madero, sent his troops to Morelos to help oust the Zapatistas. Issued in 1916, this circular was intended to tightly monitor and control what little territory they had captured, and to destroy any propaganda from opposing forces. Zapata finally regained control of the entire state of Morelos in 1917, only to be killed in an ambush in 1919.

    Condition: Flattened folds, with a small amount of separation at center fold where paper has weakened; this does not affect the text. Uniform toning with minor foxing and soiling in places. Showthrough from purple typewriting on both sides.


    Auction Info

    Auction Dates
    May, 2019
    14th Tuesday
    Bids + Registered Phone Bidders: 1
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