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    Scientifically Important Archive of Early Letters of Einstein, Urey, Born, Wigner, Kemble, Langmuir, Birge, Millikan, others. Superb collection of 51 TLsS and ALsS, mostly with scientific content, each to physicist Enos E. Witmer. Includes: ALBERT EINSTEIN TLS: "A. Einstein", 1p, 5.25" x 6.5". Princeton, N.J., September 13, 1946. In full: "Overburdened with work I should prefer if you would be could (sic, good) enough to present your questions in writing." With envelope sent special delivery.; HAROLD C. UREY Five letters of the winner of the 1934 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of heavy hydrogen. Comprises: ALS: "Harold C. Urey", 1p, 8.5" x 11". [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore], May 20, 1926. In part: "After trying many combinations on the Fulcher bands without success, I tried a few along your ideas which seem to show conclusively that your interpretations of the green bands is quite correct. Probably you have these already but thought I would mention them anyway." At this point, Urey lists Green bands, red bands, New Infra red bands, Blue Dicke bands and New bands, each with a line of mathematical calculations concluding: "I tried only a few lines of last but they seem to check up. I believe with these combinations that your interpretation is quite certain."; With carbon of Witmer's April 5, 1926 letter to Urey. Three TLsS: "Harold C. Urey", In part: (1) 2p, 8.5" x 11", February 20, 1926. "I have assumed that the theory of the H+2 (See enclosed reprint. Also paper in Phys. Rev. for February) is approximately correct and that the Fulcher green bands are the H+2 bands for the transition n* = 3 to n* = 2 (Your et = 3 to et = 2). Then I have assumed that the energy in the steady states is a function of the quantum numbers of the same form as that required by classical mechanics and quantum theory. From this I can calculate the steady states as functions of the quantum numbers and this formula is given in the last section of the paper. This formula predicts an ultraviolet band whose frequencies are v = 102991.7 - 4195 n4 + 140.5 n42 - 100.88 m2 + .236 m4 + 5.97 m2n4. This would be the electron transition n* = 2 to n* = 1. In this formula I would substitute n4 = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2 -----, and m = 3/2, 5/2, 7/2 -----. The normalization of quantum numbers might be different however...It seems to me at first thought that your interpretation of the heat of dissociation as 4.22 volts is not justified though my reasons may be faulty. The potential energy should be a function of the distance between the nuclei of the usual form namely [Urey has drawn here a potential energy curve] where Wo is the energy in the normal state. The nuclei could vibrate until the total energy is W max which in general will be greater than W diss., the energy of dissociation. It seems thst you assume that W max = W diss and I don't believe that this is necessarily true." Urey adds in holograph: "However you may have it worked out quite correctly and I may be in error." The "enclosed reprint" mentioned by Urey is present: "A Possible Explanation of the Relativity Doublets and Anomalous Zeeman Effect by Means of a Magnetic Electron" by F.R. Bichowsky and H.C. Urey, Reprinted from the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences...February, 1926", 6p, 6.75" x 10", brown paper cover; (2) 1.5p, 8.5" x 11", March 30, 1926. In part, "I am sorry that I did not get one of my points of my previous paper clearly stated and in fact I think that the potential energy curve was drawn incorrectly. I remembered a curve from Born and Franck's paer (sic, paper) in the Zeitschrift for last spring and plotted the wrong curve. I refer to the question of the dissociation of the molecule due to the vibrational energy. As an example take the Bohr model of the hydrogen molecule ion or the Pauli-Niessen model." A carbon of Witmer's March 25, 1926 letter to Urey, acknowledging receipt of Urey's February 20th letter, is present; (3) 1p, 8" x 10.5", October 31, 1929. In part, "I agree completely with your criticisms and am very much indebted to you for straightening out the difficulties in this section and also for greatly aiding me in getting a correct understanding of the subject." MAX BORN Two TLsS and one ALS: "M. Born", each in German; not translated. Comprises: (1) 2p, 8.5" x 11". Gottingen, February 12, 1927. Born is excited that Witmer wants to come to his Instutute in Gottingen. He explains that he has a large group of American physicists there and he is not satisfied with their work. Born does compliment one American: "However, I now have a fellow, Mr. [J. Robert] Oppenheimer, with whom I work with quite well and he thus far has done great work here. You must also ask yourself if you believe in this line of work. If you decide you do, I will go to alot of trouble to promote your studies." (2) 1p, 8.5" x 11". Gottingen, April 20, 1927. Born thanks Witmer for an invitation. (3) ALS on message side of a 1929 Easter greeting postcard, 5.5" x 4", thanking Witmer for his good wishes while he was ill. EDWIN C. KEMBLE Four TLsS: "Edwin C. Kemble", 1925-1928. In part: (1) "I am awfully glad that you have elected to come to Cambridge...There is a chance that Mullikan will be able to make arrangements to stay with us another year, and, if so, you will be the gainer"; (2) "Blackburn of Chicago is applying for permission to come to Cambridge...to study band spectra with me. As I already have you and Barton on my hands, and as Mullikan is to work with me on the Zeeman effect, I hesitate a little about adding Blackburn"; (3) "You might be interested in analyzing a set of very interesting bands presumably due to hydrogen which Prof. Lyman has found in the extreme ultraviolet in mixtures of H and He."; (4) "Zener and I have been working on the excited states of H2 and on the general perturbation theory of diatomic molecules. During the summer I gave a course on wave mechanics and band spectra at the University of Michigan. There was a fine crowd there, including Kramers, Uhlenbeck, Goudsmit, Oppenheimer, Mullikan and others, so that the atmosphere was very stimulating." EUGENE P. WIGNER Three TLsS: "E. Wigner" and "E. P. Wigner" and four ALsS: "E. Wigner" and "Eugene Wigner". (1) TLS, 1p, 8.5" x 11", November 20, 1934. In part, "It would be very nice if you could come up with Dr. Bushkovitch on Saturday...."; (2) ALS, 1.5p, 8.5" x 11", January 21, 1935. In part: "It is so kind of you and Dr Bushkovitch to ask me for dinner and a show after my lecture. I look forward to the dinner and to see you, but, I am afraid, I have to give up the idea of going to a show, since I have a lecture the other morning." (3) TLS, 1p, 8.5" x 11", October 20, 1947, In part: "Thank you very much for your letter inviting me to give an address to your colloquium on December 3." (4) TLS, 1p, 8.5" x 11", November 3, 1947. In part: "Do you think that 'Reactions and Scattering Cross Sections' would be a suitable title for my talk?" (5) ALS, 1.5p, 6" x 9.25", January 13, 1964. On December 12, 1963, in Stockholm, Sweden, Eugene P, Wigner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In part: "It was a great pleasure to receive your congratulations and I am sorry only not to have answered earlier. We were on our way to Stockholm when it came and it was practically Christmas when we returned...Stockholm was beautiful but just a little exhausting." With original envelope. (6) ALS: "Mary & Eugene Wigner" by Eugene Wigner, inside Christmas card, 3.5" by 5.25" when closed, 1968. In part: "We were so pleased with your card and it would not have been your card had it not had some relation to physics-and a surprising one." (7) ALS on verso of 5.75" by 4" picture postcard from Israel picturing the Alexander Zayid Memorial, two Israeli stamps affixed postmarked Haifa, April 21, 1973. In part: "We are in Israel for six weeks - ending May 18." RAYMOND T. BIRGE Comprises three TLsS and one ALS, each signed: "Raymond T. Birge". (1) TLS, 1p, March 22, 1926. In part: "It certainly seems now that all of your conclusions are essentially correct, and you are to be congratulated on the work. Dieke got a film, about two weeks ago, showing the series of bands which you use, with very beautiful definition. I had thought that your bands were probably actual P and R branches superimposed." (2) ALS, 2p, 7" x 10.5", April 29, 1929. In part: "G.E. Gibson of the Chemistry Dept. here...He decided that 136 (a rare gas) was the last possible number of the periodic table." Birge has handwritten over 16 scientific equations in this letter! (3) TLS, 1p, 8.5" x 11", October 8, 1932. In part: "I do think that the relation of the mass of proton to that of electron is of fundamental importance, and when we get the true theoretical relation giving the numerical value, we will know a lot more on the subject than we do now. If I understand the recent theoretical developments, there is no one that has the least idea why these two elementary particles have such different masses. Some day we may...My correction for the presence of H2, in my published Apr. 15 letter is of course all wrong, since both Bainbridge and Barker now get about 1 in 30,000 to 35,000 for the abundance. Using then my 1929 value of e/MH, which ignores the H2 isotope, one has, from e/m = 1.758 Mp/m - 1835.13, and from 1.757 we get 1834.08. I hope this value of e/m will not keep on 'sinking',(!) but it looks as if 1834 to 1836 were the theoretucal values to be acounted for, rather than 1838." With original envelope. (4) TLS, 1p, 8.5" x 11", November 3, 1932. In part: "Since I wrote you on October 8th that Dr. Dunnington here was getting values of e/m of 1.757 to 1.758, I think I should write now to tell you that after various further corrections and calculations, as well as new measurements, he has a final value of 1.7592." ROBERT A. MILLIKAN Two TLsS: "Robert A. Millikan", each 1p, 8.5" x 11". (1) December 2, 1937. In full: "You may be assured that my delay in replying to your letter received November 17th is not due to lack of interest. I want to have a little more time, though, to look up the mechanical engineering situation, and will write you about it again, soon." (2) January 21, 1938. In part: "Mechanical engineering seems at present to be a hard field to fill, and in some instances the best bet seems to have been to convert a physicist into a mechanical engineer, - not a very large transformation. Is the job at Pennsylvania still open, and do you want a man whose abilities are primarily administrative or one who can get intimately into the research job himself? If the latter, the physics group would be worth considering." IRVING LANGMUIR TLS: "Irving Langmuir", 1.25p, 8" x 10.5". General Electric Company, Schenectady, N.Y., April 22, 1926. in part: "I have read with much interest your paper in the last number of the Proceedings of the National Academy in which you find the value of 98,500 calories for the heat of dissociation of Hydrogen. You compare this with the value of 84,000 calories which I published several years ago...I recalculated the old experimental data of 1915 making use of the third law of thermodynamics. It is much more accurate to calculate the heat of dissociation from the experimental value of the degree of dissociation by means of the third law than it is to calculate the heat of reaction by the temperature coefficient of the degree of dissociation, as I have done in my earlier paper. You will see that the recalculated values of the degree of dissociation give 97,000 in very good agreement with whjat you have found." Also included are TLsS of I. I. Rabi, John D. Anderson (scientific content), Theodore Lyman, H.D. Smyth, G. H. Dieke (scientific content), Hubert M. James, J. W. Beams (scientific content), John A. Wheeler, E. U. Condon (two), E. Bright Wilson, Jr., J. H. Van Vleck, Alfred Lande, L. Rosenfeld, Arthur Roark, John C. Slater (scientific content), Ernest J. Sternglass (scientific content); ALsS of Max Schuler (2p, 8.5" x 11.25", 1929; in German, not translated; discusses compasses for airplanes; tattered top edge), L. Rosenfeld (two), J. K. Landau (two), G. Breit (scientific content), John P. Vinti (2, both scientific content); booklets: "Band Spectra and Chemistry" by Robert S. Mulliken, 44p, 6.75" x 10", 1929; "On the Quantum Theory of the Specific Heat of Hydrogen" by J. H. Van Vleck, 50p, 7" x 10:, 1926; "Dirac-Hypothese und Erdexpansion" by P. Jordan, 12p, 5.75" x 8.25", 1960. Inscribed in upper right of cover: "For Enos E. Witmer/with many thanks/of the author./P. Jordan". Lightly stained at top of cover page. 54 items plus envelopes, carbons. A truly remarkable assemblage of scientifically important letters written during the early years of research in nuclear physics, providing a insight into the minds of a few of the noted physicists of the 1920's as they were theorizing and then trying to prove their theories, admitting when they were wrong. Unless noted otherwise, all letters are in fine condition.Accompanied by LOA from PSA/DNA.

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