124 Confederate POW autographs from Fort WarrenAutograph Album of Confederate Prisoners at Fort Warren, dated December 1861 through February 1862 and containing the signatures (and sometimes sentiments) of 124 Confederate POWs. Many of the POWs were important civilian, military, and political prisoners. Located on an island in the Boston Harbor, Fort Warren was known for treating its prisoners humanely. The first page reads in manuscript, "Autographs of Prisoners Confined at Fort Warren Decr. 12th 1861. Robert Renwick Baltimore Md. Released on Parole Feby 10th 1862." The album measures 4.5" x 7" and consists of alternating quires of green and yellow paper. The boards bear the original brown cloth with "Autographs" in gilt; some expected wear. Housed in a custom-made marbled clamshell case with leather spine.
In October 1861, Robert Renwick, a cabinetmaker from Baltimore, was arrested for aiding the Southern cause (possessing a large number of concealed weapons and enlisting men into the Confederate Army). He was paroled February 10, 1862, but while on the island prison, he acquired the signatures of 124 fellow prisoners. During Renwick's short time in the prison, a number of important civilian, military, and political prisoners were imprisoned there, such as John Slidell and James Mason, who had been arrested when their blockade-running vessel, transporting the two to Europe for a Confederate diplomatic mission, was intercepted by a Union vessel. Also included are the signatures of Baltimore Mayor George W. Brown and Baltimore Police Commissioners John Davis, Charles Howard, William Gatchell, and George Kane, all purged from their offices in the important border state of Maryland for holding pro-Confederate sympathies.
Also included are the signatures of naval officers, many who refused to take an oath of allegiance to the U.S. after their ships came into port. Flag Officer Samuel Barron Sr., Commodore William Ward, and William Glassell, the pioneer of submarine warfare, are three examples. The signatures of three scarce Confederate Marines also appear: Robert Tansill, John Tattnall, and Thomas Wilson.
Other signatures in the album include thirty-four Confederate officers from North Carolina military units (most from the 7th North Carolina Regiment) who surrendered to Gen. Benjamin Butler at Fort Hatteras in August 1861. These were some of the earliest Confederate prisoners of the war. After Butler arrested them, he set a precedent that captured Confederate soldiers would be treated as prisoners of war and not as traitors.
Other prominent Southern figures who signed the book include the following: General John Pegram, Kentucky Governor Charles Morehead, and Charles Faulkner (Stonewall Jackson's A.A.G.). The soldiers who signed were doctors, lawyers, merchants, farmers, mechanics, spies, editors, Confederate recruiting officers, blockade runners, and more.
Below are the signatures of members of the Legislature of Maryland at Fort Warren:
John M. Brewer, Thomas J. Claggett, Robert M. Denison, William G. Harrison, T. Lawrence Jones, Andrew Kessler, Andrew A. Lynch M.D., Dr. Charles Macgill, J.W. Maxwell, Bernard Mills M.D., Charles H. Pitts, Philip F. Rasin, William E, Salmon, Lawrence Sangston, T. Parkin Scott, Dr. J. Hanson Thomas, Severn Teackle Wallis, Henry M. Warfield.
Signatures of Naval and Marine Corps Officers at Fort Warren:
Samuel Barron Sr., Hilary Cenas, Alexander M. DeBree, Dulaney A. Forrest, Richard W. Jeffery, William T. Glassell, James E. Lindsay, Julian Myers, William Meade Page, Edward S. Ruggles, John R.F. Tattnalll, William H. Ward, Robert Tansill, Arthur Dickson Wharton, Thomas S. Wilson.
Signatures of the officers of the Fort Hatteras Garrison at Fort Warren:
Thomas H. Allen, W.S.G. Andrews, A.E. Bell, William Biggs, James A.J. Bradford, Joseph G. Carraway, L.L. Clements, John T. P.C. Cohoon, George M. Daniel, William A. Duke, A.W. Ezzelle, Henry Augustus Gilliam, Thomas B. Griffin, George W. Grimes, N.H. Hughes, Lucius Junius Johnson, George Washington Johnston, Stuart L. Johnston, C.G. Lamb, John Calhoun lamb, James T. Lassell, Granville Gratiott Luke, William Francis Martin, Julian G. Moore, M.T. Moyer, Thomas J. Norman, J.J. Patehurst, W. Low, John W. Poole, J. Clement Shannon M.D., Thomas Hunter Sharp, Thomas Sparrow, George S. Whittey, W.E. Windlay.
Other signatures of those present at Fort Warren:
R.H. Alvey, George Armistead Appleton, Jerome R. Barber, Charles Barkley, N.C. Berry, R.H. Bigger, James Brown, Bethel Burton and J.K. Millner, James S. Casey, James Cooper, John H. Cusick, J.H. Curtis, Alfred Da Costa, Justin Dimick, Robert Drane, F.M. Farley, Charles J. Faulkner, F.H. Foster, Richard S. Freeman, Parker H. French, Joseph R. Flanders and Francis D. Flanders, Charles Green, F. Hall, Thomas W. Hall Jr, Frank Key Howard, H.E. Humphrey, Charles Kopperl, John Low, Daniel C. Lowber, Samuel H. Lyon, William F. McKewen, Isaac G. Mask, Charles Slaughter Morehead, Rev. Nathanial Greene North, Gen. John Pegram, Jacob Roberts, John G. Shaver, Austin E. Smith, C.H. Tyler, James L. Whitehead, William H. Winder, F. Wyatt.
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