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    General Andrew Jackson Discusses Creek Indian Surrender Terms
    Following the Battle of Horseshoe Bend

    Andrew Jackson Letter Signed. One page with integral address leaf, 8" x 12.5", Fort Jackson, Alabama, August 9, 1814. During the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom/Canada, the Creek War erupted in Alabama after huge raiding parties attacked white settlements and killed over 400 settlers at Fort Mims. Although having nothing to do with the British or Canadians, the battle is considered part of the War of 1812 because the British supported the Creek.

    In March 1814, Jackson led a force of Tennessee militia, Choctaw and Cherokee warriors, and U.S. regulars - numbering approximately 2000 in total - south to attack the Creek tribes. On March 26, Jackson and General John Coffee decisively defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend, killing 800 of 1,000 Creeks at a cost of 49 killed and 154 wounded. Jackson pursued the remaining Creeks until they gave up. While surrender negotiations were underway, Jackson initiated the construction of a fort at the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers. Jackson then briefly traveled to Washington and in his absence the fort was named "Jackson" in his honor. Upon his return, he imposed the Treaty of Fort Jackson upon both the Northern Creek enemies and the Southern Creek allies, wresting 20 million acres from them for white settlement. It was at this point in time that this letter to "His Excellency Willie Blount, Governor of Tennessee" was composed.

    "I detained the Express to give you the result of the pending negotiations with the Creeks. They have this moment consummated the Convention by their Signatures. The enclosed is a true copy [copy not extant]. I found considerable difficulty in making the arrangements with them in consequence of a letter written by General Pinkney to General Hawkins - which he requested be made known to the Chief as the terms of peace, and which contained several promises of indemnity for losses sustained by them in the present war, unauthorized by any power or instructions possessed by me, and consequently I could not, and have not embraced in any member of the Treaty. However, at this particular solicitation, I have forwarded to the President of the United States General Pinkney's letter, and Colo. Hawkins reply for his consideration and that of the Congress. The whole of Alabama and the valuable Coosa and Kahawba [sic] in all containing about twenty two millions of acres are contained in this cession. I am very respectfully Yr. mo obdt Servt. Andrew Jackson."

    Presumably, Jackson addressed this letter to Governor Blount out of respect for Blount having sent an army of West Tennessee militia to assist in fighting the Creek. Although throughout the early months of his campaign Jackson was troubled by serious discipline problems with his militia and volunteers, he was able by sheer force of character and military genius to turn them into a well-trained and winning fighting force.

    Letter is moderately age toned with a few small areas of paper loss along edges and at fold intersections. Muted water stains show at lower portion of the letter, slightly affecting Jackson's signature. Overall very good condition. This is an exceptional letter with outstanding content and is sure to garner great interest from bidders in several collecting genres. Another letter by Jackson on the topic of the treaty of Fort Jackson, written on this same day to Major John Reed sold for $20,000 at auction in 1999.

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    Auction Dates
    October, 2008
    17th-18th Friday-Saturday
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